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Both the Electric Vehicles and Hybrid Electric Vehicles are currently employing charging systems that are either placed on-board or mounted separately outside the vehicle as part of the infrastructure. Additional costs arise from both solutions, lower yield if on-board placed because
of the suplimentary load, higher expenses with the infrastructure if built separately.

- Our system removes the need to create special expensive infrastructure for charging the batteries, limiting to standard three-phase terminals   with minimal costs.
  There is no cheaper solution to charge the traction batteries of the Vehicles nor easier to be implemented in the infrastructure today. And   there is no additional weight on both EV-s and HEV-s because no separate charging devices are used to charge the batteries but the same   traction converters employed in the running mode.

- And maybe one of the most important advantages is that the Vehicles can employ the wide spread already existing three phase terminals to   charge the batteries so they are not forced to run only on certain routes between sophisticated charging stations.

           A vital issue is the time required to fully charge the battery, say to balance the State Of Charge of the battery cells.
           The standard full charging time of the common electric Vehicles is 6-8 hours a day, too long time limiting the operation of the            professional transportation ones.

- Our system decreases the full charging time in quite a significant manner in order to avoid as much as possible the limitations arised by the   time spent for a full charge from empty state. It is designed to charge the batteries under the control of the Battery Management System in   order to perform also the Redistribution of the Charge between the battery cells, a new approach that allows the complete usage of the   capacity of the battery, dramatically reducing the time wasted for a full charge. Having said the above, a full charge from empty state lasts   no more than 2 1/2 hours which is currently limited by the technological progress achieved by the batteries.

          Please note this has nothing to do with the fast charging mode, available to almost all competitors and lasting more or less the same           amount of time.
          These are quite different features.
          The key is our system does not need to completely charge the batteries more than 2 1/2 hours ever.

- Last but not least, the system is oriented to the future in the sense that in terms of power is ready to charge the batteries with higher   currents in much shorter time than the state of the art allows the Li-Ion batteries to be charged today.
The system developed by INDA for LEA and LHy locomotives fits - without changes - on Electric City Buses and road Vehicles such as Electric Trucks, SUVs, minibuses and hybrid passenger trains.

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